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Prof. Dr. Aliaksandr Bandarenka

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Physik der Energiewandlung und -speicherung
Professur für Physik der Energiewandlung und -speicherung

Lehrveranstaltungen und Termine

Ausgeschriebene Angebote für Abschlussarbeiten

Electrodeposition of refractory metals from ionic liquids

Refractory metals are metals like titanium, tantalum, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. They are high-melting reactive metals that in contact with air from a very thin oxide layer that protects them from further oxidation and renders them very stable towards corrosion. This makes them important as coatings for the chemical process industry [1, 2]. Ti and Ta also show excellent biocompatibility and are of interest for implant materials [3, 4]. Therefore, there is a strong interest in generating dense coatings with thicknesses in the µm-mm range of these materials. For other metals, like zinc, nickel, chromium, copper, gold, electroplating is the key technology to make such coatings. Aqueous solutions with suitable additives and well-established deposition conditions are used. The German electroplating industry has an annual turnover of ~ 6 billion €, corresponding to 2% of the gross national product. The created values through e.g. prevention of corrosion damage is much larger, ~ 150 billion €/year. Thus electroplating is a highly important technology impacting everybody’s daily life. Unfortunately, most refractory metals cannot be deposited from aqueous electrolytes. Therefore a new technology needs to be devised. Electrodeposition from ionic liquids is such a technology. Ionic liquids are salts with a melting point below 100°C. Many ionic liquids are even liquid at room temperature. These liquids show a wide electrochemical window permitting the deposition of very reactive metals, have a low vapour pressure and often low toxicity [5]. Most papers studying the deposition of Ti, Ta and Nb so far have been using halide based precursors. While for Ta and Nb some success has been reported [6-9], but films are still not free from cracks and impurities, the deposition of Ti succeeded only in ultrathin films so far [10, 11]. The deposition of W and Mo was successful in the case of alloys but the deposition of the pure materials has not been achieved. Currently, in collaboration with the Chemistry department and several German research institutions, we study more in depth the electrochemical deposition of refractory metals (see One approach is to use entirely new metal precursor salts, that are not commercially available, and different ionic liquids. These salts and in part the ionic liquids are prepared by project partners in the Chemistry Department. The current master thesis would be separated into two parts: In the first part, electrolyte solutions made from components provided by the project partner shall be screened using the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance technique with respect to their potential for electrodeposition. In the second part, one or two systems are selected and studied more in depth, to understand the physical details of the electrodeposition mechanism, to characterize the electrodeposited layers structurally and with respect to their corrosion properties. [1] U. Gramberg, M. Renner, H. Diekmann, Mater. Corros., 46 (1995) 689-700. [2] M. Schussler, Int. J. Refract. Hard Met., 2 (1983) 67-70. [3] J.R. Vargas, S. Seelman, in, Zimmer, Inc., USA . 2014, pp. 17pp. [4] V.-H. Pham, S.-H. Lee, Y. Li, H.-E. Kim, K.-H. Shin, Y.-H. Koh, Thin Solid Films, 536 (2013) 269-274. [5] S. Zein El Abedin, F. Endres, ChemPhysChem, 7 (2006) 58-61. [6] T. Carstens, A. Ispas, N. Borisenko, R. Atkin, A. Bund, F. Endres, Electrochimica Acta, 197 (2016) 374-387. [7] P. Giridhar, S. Zein El Abedin, A. Bund, A. Ispas, F. Endres, Electrochimica Acta, 129 (2014) 312-317. [8] S. Krischok, A. Ispas, A. Zühlsdorff, A. Ulbrich, A. Bund, F. Endres, ECS Transactions, 50 (2013) 229-237. [9] N. Borisenko, A. Ispas, E. Zschippang, Q. Liu, S. Zein El Abedin, A. Bund, F. Endres, Electrochimica Acta, 54 (2009) 1519-1528. [10] F. Endres, S. Zein El Abedin, A.Y. Saad, E.M. Moustafa, N. Borissenko, W.E. Price, G.G. Wallace, D.R. MacFarlane, P.J. Newman, A. Bund, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 10 (2008) 2189-2199. [11] C.A. Berger, M. Arkhipova, A. Farkas, G. Maas, T. Jacob, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18 (2016) 4961-4965.

geeignet als
  • Masterarbeit Physik der kondensierten Materie
  • Masterarbeit Applied and Engineering Physics
Themensteller(in): Aliaksandr Bandarenka
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