FOPRA Experiment 44: Bell's Inequality and Quantum Tomography
Course 0000100044 in SS 2021
|Course Type||practical training|
|Semester Weekly Hours||2 SWS|
Assignment to Modules
Courses are together with exams the building blocks for modules. Please keep in mind that information on the contents, learning outcomes and, especially examination conditions are given on the module level only – see section "Assignment to Modules" above.
|additional remarks||Quantum mechanical systems exhibit fundamentally diﬀerent properties compared to classical systems. While the state of a classical particle can at any time be described by a set of well deﬁned classical variables, quantum particles can be in superposition of diﬀerent sates. If two or more particles are in a superposition such that the full state of the system can only be described by a joint superposition, then these particles are called entangled. The question whether the behaviour of entangled systems is determined by classical (local, realistic) variables was posed in a well-known paper in 1935 by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen (collectively “EPR”). Later, Bell formulated an inequality which allows to experimentally test whether the behaviour of entangled particles can be explained using such classical variables. Besides these fundamental physics questions, entanglement is the key element for applications of quantum physics such as quantum cryptography, teleportation or quantum computation. Furthermore, its characteristics can be used for a fundamental test of non-classical properties of quantum theory. Quantum tomography is an essential tool for many of these applications. In this lab course we will perform quantum state tomography on polarization-entangled photon pairs and violate Bell’s inequality.|