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Hadrons at Accelerators and Astrophysics Observables 1

Module PH2301

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Basic Information

PH2301 is a semester module in English language at which is offered in winter semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • Specific catalogue of special courses for nuclear, particle, and astrophysics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for condensed matter physics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for Biophysics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for Applied and Engineering Physics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 60 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2301 is Laura Fabbietti.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


We will focus on the experimental test of the strong Interaction in the non-perturbative regime ( Low Energy QCD)

and explore the connections to astrophysics with examples from modern and contemporary experiments.

In the first semester, we will focus on the pillars of the strong interactions and treat:

* Chiral Symmetry Breaking (CSB) and possible Restauration (CSR)

    CSB is linked to the origin of the hadron mass and experimentally very challenging to explore.

    A historical review of the attempts and state of the art of the results will be discussed.

* Hadron properties in the nuclear medium and link to CSR

    Hadron properties within nuclear matter at different densities are on one hand connected to the search of CSR but on the  other end relevant for the description of objects such as neutron stars. The key experiments will be studied

* Meson-Nucleon and Meson-Nucleus Interaction

* Hyperon-Nucleon interaction

   The behaviour of hadrons in matter depend on the two-body and three-body interactions. The experimental method 

   used to access them will be discussed 

This includes:

    * Scattering experiments, pionic and kaonic atoms

    * Correlations 

     * Hadronic Resonances and Exotic bound state in low energy QCD

* Link to dense and cold system as Neutron Stars

    At the end of the course, the link to the physics of neutrons stars will be made and

    then further expanded in the second module of the course during the sommer 


Learning Outcome

After this course the student will get an overview about

1) Modern experiments at different accelerator facilities and the study of low energy QCD processes involving hadrons

2) Hadrons interaction with nuclear matter under different temperature and density conditions and link to the phase transitions

possible for nuclear matter

3) How are the properties of hadrons within dense and hot nuclear matter correlated to the observation of chiral symmetry restoration. An overview about the implications of chiral symmetry breaking

4) Experimental techniques and observables at accelarator experiments at different energies related to astrophysics 

5) Why are hadrons with strange quarks relevant in the study of low energy QCD

6) Kaonic, pionic and hyper-nuclei

7) heavy ion collisions and their power

8) Dileptons and hadrons final states as probes of low energy QCD properties


Nuclear, Particle and Astrophysics Lecture, Expert or Intro

Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

VO 2 Hadrons at Accelerators and Astrophysics Observables 1 Fabbietti, L. Tue, 10:00–12:00, PH 2024
UE 2 Exercise to Hadrons at Accelerators and Astrophysics Observables 1
Responsible/Coordination: Fabbietti, L.
Wed, 16:30–18:00, PH 2024

Learning and Teaching Methods

The course will be based on scientific articles, mainly experimental works, that will be explained and discussed.


The articles treated during the course will be distributed during each lessons to the students.

Slides with all the exposed material will also be made available to the students.

Explenatory examples will be presented at the blackboard.


Book: The structure of the Nucleon

A. W. Thomas and W. Weise 

Review Articles:

Hadrons in strongly interacting matter 
Stefan Leupold, Volker Metag, Ulrich Mosel (Giessen U.). Jul 2009. 80 pp. 
Published in Int.J.Mod.Phys. E19 (2010) 147-224 
DOI: 10.1142/S0218301310014728 



Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

There will be an oral exam of 25 minutes duration. Therein the achievement of the competencies given in section learning outcome is tested exemplarily at least to the given cognition level using comprehension questions and sample calculations.

For example an assignment in the exam might be:

  • How can be understand the origin of the hadron mass?
  • Which is the experimental signature of chiral symmetry restoration?
  • How can we measure the properties of the hadrons in hot and dense nuclear matter?
  • How can we relate the hadron properties measured in hadron collisions at accelerators with astrophysics processes?
  • What are pionic and kaonic atoms and how can one produce them?
  • What are the properties of hyper nuclei?
  • Why are dileptons the best experimental probes to study the hadrons properties within nuclear matter?

Exam Repetition

The exam may be repeated at the end of the semester.

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