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Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2

Module PH2271

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Module version of WS 2019/20

There are historic module descriptions of this module. A module description is valid until replaced by a newer one.

Whether the module’s courses are offered during a specific semester is listed in the section Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature below.

available module versions
WS 2022/3SS 2021WS 2019/20WS 2018/9SS 2018

Basic Information

PH2271 is a semester module in English language at Master’s level which is offered every semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • Specific catalogue of special courses for Biophysics
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for Applied and Engineering Physics
  • Focus Area Imaging in M.Sc. Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for condensed matter physics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for nuclear, particle, and astrophysics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 30 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2271 in the version of WS 2019/20 was Marion Irene Menzel.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


This module builds up upon module PH2270. It starts with an in-depth look at the connected areas of sampling and reconstruction of MR signals, from which general results about the achievable resolution and the propagation of noise can be obtained. After presenting typical artifacts and their origins, we conclude with a survey of actual rapid imaging techniques.


·         Sampling of k-Space

o   The Sampling Theorem

o   Sampling Requirements of  k-Space Signals

·         Image Reconstruction

o   General Issues

o   Reconstruction from Fourier Transform Samples

·         Resolution, Noise and Artifacts

o   Point Spread Function

o   Image Noise

o   Image Artifacts

·         Rapid Imaging Techniques

o   Spin Echo based

o   Gradient Echo based

o   Echo Planar Imaging

Learning Outcome

After successful participation in this module the students are able to:

  • describe the general approach to and interdependency of signal sampling and image reconstruction.
  • understand, how image quality (resolution, SNR, artifacts) is affected by specific boundary conditions of signal sampling and reconstruction.
  • describe the most relevant rapid imaging techniques.


PH2270: Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1 is recommended

Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

VO 2 Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2 Menzel, M.
Assistants: Ganter, C.Hammernik, K.Pirkl, C.Preibisch, C.Verdun, C.
Thu, 15:00–18:00
Thu, 15:00–18:00
Thu, 15:00–18:00
Thu, 15:00–18:00
and singular or moved dates
UE 1 Exercise to Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2
Responsible/Coordination: Menzel, M.

Learning and Teaching Methods

This module consists of a lecture and an exercise class.

The teaching methods are: Oral presentation, Quiz, Exercises, Discussions. Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2 has 4 homework problem sets. Homework will be handed at the end of selected lectures. In the beginning of the next lecture, the students are able to hand in their solutions, which will not be graded. The solutions of the homework problems will be discussed in class during the first hours of the class when the homework is due.


Whiteboard, Powerpoint presentation


  • Z.-P. Liang & P.C. Lauterbur: Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Signal Processing Perspective, Wiley-IEEE, (1999)
  • R.W. Brown, Y.-C.N. Cheng, E.M. Haacke, M.R. Thompson, R. Venkatesan: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Physical Principles and Sequence Design, 2. Ed., Wiley-Blackwell, (2014); available online from within TUM via:

Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

There will be a written exam of 60 minutes duration. Therein the achievement of the competencies given in section learning outcome is tested exemplarily at least to the given cognition level using calculation problems and comprehension questions.

For example an assignment in the exam might be:

  • Explain the connection between sampled k-space and the resulting reconstructed resolution.
  • Name a few typical artifacts and explain their respective causes.
  • Which rapid imaging sequences are well-suited for T1-weighted abdominal imaging?

In the exam no learning aids are permitted.

There will be a bonus (one intermediate stepping of "0,3" to the better grade) on passed module exams (4,3 is not upgraded to 4,0). The bonus is applicable to the exam period directly following the lecture period (not to the exam repetition) and subject to the condition that the student passes the mid-term of handing in at least 3 out of 4 homework set sheets.

Exam Repetition

The exam may be repeated at the end of the semester.

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