Extragalactic Astrophysics

Module PH2206

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Basic Information

PH2206 is a semester module in English or German language at Master’s level which is offered in summer semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • General catalogue of special courses
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for nuclear, particle, and astrophysics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 40 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2206 is Bruno Leibundgut.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


The universe outside our Milky Way was recognised as such less than 100 years ago. Within less than a century extragalactic astrophysics has become a major research field.  Major topics of extragalactic astrophysics are the description and physical understanding of galaxies, the clustering of galaxies in groups, galaxy clusters and large scale structure forming the cosmic web.

The course will describe our Milky Way as a galaxy and how it relates to other galaxies. The local environment of the Milky Way and the Andromeda nebula forming the Local Group and the relation to the nearest galaxy cluster, the Virgo cluster, will be described. The role of dwarf galaxies remains unclear, but they are important for the understanding of star formation. In particular, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are local laboraties for the investigation of small stellar systems. Galaxy morphologies and how they relate to the star formation activity are further topics, which will lead to the global evolution of star formation and the evolution of galaxies. Major components of galaxy formation and evolution are the dark matter and the feedback processes. Active Galactic Nuclei, the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies, can influence the evolution of galaxies. As quasars these objects can be observed throughout the universe and represent beacons for the study of gas clouds and intergalactic gas. The extragalactic sky can be observed at many wavelengths and the most energetic events are typically extragalactic.

Learning Outcome

After this course the students should feel confident with topics concerning galaxies as physical entities and their role in the universe. They should have a good understanding of what objects can be observed in the universe and how structure within the universe has formed.


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Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

VO 2 Extragalactic Astrophysics Leibundgut, B. Donnerstag, 12:00–14:00

Learning and Teaching Methods

This is a lecture course. The students should be able to follow the course with the help of occasional backup reading of an astronomy book and the handouts.


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Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

In a written exam the learning outcome is tested using comprehension questions and sample problems.

In accordance with §12 (8) APSO the exam can be done as an oral exam. In this case the time duration is 25 minutes.

Exam Repetition

There is a possibility to take the exam at the end of the semester.

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