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Semiconductor Nanofabrication and Nano-analytical Methods

Module PH2183

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Basic Information

PH2183 is a semester module in German or English language at Master’s level which is offered in winter semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • Specific catalogue of special courses for condensed matter physics
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for Applied and Engineering Physics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for nuclear, particle, and astrophysics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for Biophysics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 45 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2183 is Gregor Koblmüller.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


The module focuses on various methods of nanofabrication (optical, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam) and newer emerging techni¬ques (x-ray lithography, nanoimprint, etc.). In particular the physical principles are discussed and limitations for the various methods given. Various synthesis and crystal growth methods for advanced semiconductor nanostructures will be further introduced such as chemical and physical vapor phase epitaxial techniques (MOVPE, MBE, etc.) and the physical growth principles of 0D,1D, and 2D materials highlighted. Examples will be given where these low-dimensional nanostructures are implemented into cutting-edge technological applications. The second part of this lecture deals with specific nanoanalytical methods required for characterization of structural, surface and atomic properties of nanofabricated and synthesized materials. These include electron microscopy, surface analytical methods, ion beam analytical techniques, x-ray techniques, and some new sophisticated techniques, such as atom probe tomography, etc.

Learning Outcome

After successful completing of the module students are able to:

  • to select and evaluate specific nanofabrication methods relevant for nanotechnological applications
  • understand the limits of the various methodologies
  • understand nanofabrication and analysis of mainly semiconductor-based devices
  • perform structural, atomic and interface specific analysis of nanostructured materials
  • understand the complex interplay between material synthesis, structural and electronic properties of materials, and their effect on functionalities in cutting-edge device applications


Basics in Solid State Physics (e.g. PH0019)

Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

Learning and Teaching Methods

This module consists of a lecture and an exercise class.

In the thematically structured lecture the learning content is presented. With cross references between different topics the universal concepts in nanotechnology and -analytics are shown. In scientific discussions the students are involved to stimulate their analytic-physics intellectual power.

In the exercise the learning content is deepened and exercised via individual lab projects. Thus the students are able to explain and apply the learned methodologies independently.


Class-room Presentation (slide - powerpoint), Lab visit


  • Z. Cui: Nanofabrication: Principles, Capabilities and Limits, Springer, (2008)
  • M. A. Herman, W. Richter & H. Sitter: Epitaxy: Physical Principles and Technical Implementation, Springer, (2004)
  • V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov & D. Bimberg: Epitaxy of Nanostructures, Springer, (2010)
  • E. Fuchs, H. Oppolzer & H. Rehme: Particle Beam Microanalysis: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications, Wiley-VCH, (1990)

Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

There will be an oral exam of 25 minutes duration. Therein the achievement of the competencies given in section learning outcome is tested exemplarily at least to the given cognition level using comprehension questions and sample calculations.

For example an assignment in the exam might be:

  • Explain different top-down nanofabrication methodologies and their physical limits
  • Discuss the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystal phase modes
  • Discuss the fundamentals of electron microscopy and element specific analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry,...

Participation in the exercise classes is strongly recommended since the exercises prepare for the problems of the exam and rehearse the specific competencies.

Exam Repetition

The exam may be repeated at the end of the semester.

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