Evolution of Structure in the Universe

Module PH2176

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Basic Information

PH2176 is a semester module in English language at Master’s level which is offered in winter semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • General catalogue of special courses
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for nuclear, particle, and astrophysics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 40 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2176 is the Dean of Studies at Physics Department.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


1. Introduction: Observational facts about galaxies
2. Cosmological Background
3. Evolution of cosmological perurbations -- linear theory
4. Evolution of cosmological perturbations into the non-linear
   regime -- analytic appriximations
5. Evolution of cosmological perturbations into the non-linear
   regime -- N-body simulations
6. Formation and structure of dark matter halos
7. Formation and evolution of gaseous halos
8. Star formation in galaxies
9. Evolution of stellar populations and chemical evolution
10.Formation of disk galaxies
11.Galaxy interactions and transformations
12.Formation of elliptical galaxies
13.Black holes and active galactic nuclei
14.Statistical properties of the galaxy distribution:
   the nearby Universe
15. Evolution of galaxies over the past 13 billion years

Learning Outcome

The student is expected to emerge with broad understanding of
how structure in the Universe developed from the tiny
fluctuations that we see imprinted in the Cosmic Microwave Background
into galaxies like our own Milky Way.

Lectures on topics 10-15 will also cover the latest developments               
in research in these areas.


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Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

VO 2 Evolution of Structure in the Universe Kauffmann, G. Freitag, 12:00–14:00

Learning and Teaching Methods

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The following textbook may be helpful, but

lecture material will be self-contained.

Galaxy Formation and Evolution
by Houjun Mo, Frank van den Bosch and Simon White

(Cambridge University press)

Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

In an oral exam the learning outcome is tested using comprehension questions and sample problems.

In accordance with §12 (8) APSO the exam can be done as a written test. In this case the time duration is 60 minutes.

Exam Repetition

There is a possibility to take the exam at the end of the semester.

Condensed Matter

When atoms interact things can get interesting. Fundamental research on the underlying properties of materials and nanostructures and exploration of the potential they provide for applications.

Nuclei, Particles, Astrophysics

A journey of discovery to understanding our world at the subatomic scale, from the nuclei inside atoms down to the most elementary building blocks of matter. Are you ready for the adventure?


Biological systems, from proteins to living cells and organisms, obey physical principles. Our research groups in biophysics shape one of Germany's largest scientific clusters in this area.