Two Dimensional Materials

Module PH2172

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Basic Information

PH2172 is a semester module in English or German language at Master’s level which is offered in summer semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • General catalogue of special courses
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for Applied and Engineering Physics
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for condensed matter physics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 40 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2172 is Alexander Holleitner.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


This module provides an overview on a new class of solid state materials, a fast growing research area: two-dimensional (2D) materials that are truly two-dimensional solids with a thickness of about 1 nm. Within a layer there is strong covalent bonding between atoms and weak van-der Waals coupling between adjacent layers. Nevertheless, the properties of 2D solids strongly depends on the number of layers and interaction with environment/substrate.

Subsequent to a historical and topological introduction to 2D materials, preparation and adjusted nanofabrication methods will be demonstrated. Next, the structural, optical, phonon, electronic and optoelectronic properties as well as suitable experimental methods and tools will be presented. This will include visibility studies, ellispometry, atomic force, scanning tunneling, scanning electron microscopy, enhanced X-ray methods and Raman measurements of such just 1nm thin solid state membranes. Furthermore, peculiar properties of selected materials and novel device application of 2D materials  is introduced in more detail: band-structure, Klein Tunneling and Quantum Hall effect in graphene; topological protected surface state in topological insulators; band structure, absorption, excitons and spin properties of transition metal dichalcogenides; transistor, optoelectronic devices and solar energy conversion in photovoltaic and water-splitting devices consisting of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and novel heterostructures made of two-dimensional materials.

Learning Outcome

After a successful participation of the module, the student is able to:

  1. specify different classes of 2D  solid state materials and their properties.
  2. describe and explain  preparation and nanofabrication methods for 2D materials.
  3. explain and differentiate between  suitable optical and structural characterization methods for 2D materials.
  4. explain phonon properties of 2D materials.
  5. explain magneto quantum transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect in graphene and transport in topological protected surface states.
  6. explain absorption, excitonic and spin properties of transition metal dichalcogenides..
  7. explain and discuss applications of 2D materials and their heterostructures for electronic, optoelectronic, spintronics devices and solar energy converstion.


There are no access requirements beyond the ones for the master study.

Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

VO 2 Zweidimensionale Materialien Wurstbauer, U.
Leitung/Koordination: Holleitner, A.
Dienstag, 10:00–12:00

Learning and Teaching Methods

lecture, beamer presentation, discussion, lab visit


Class room presentation


Lecture script and references therein

Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

In an oral exam the learning outcome is tested using comprehension questions and sample problems.

In accordance with §12 (8) APSO the exam can be done as a written test. In this case the time duration is 60 minutes.

Exam Repetition

There is a possibility to take the exam at the end of the semester.

Condensed Matter

When atoms interact things can get interesting. Fundamental research on the underlying properties of materials and nanostructures and exploration of the potential they provide for applications.

Nuclei, Particles, Astrophysics

A journey of discovery to understanding our world at the subatomic scale, from the nuclei inside atoms down to the most elementary building blocks of matter. Are you ready for the adventure?


Biological systems, from proteins to living cells and organisms, obey physical principles. Our research groups in biophysics shape one of Germany's largest scientific clusters in this area.