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Biomedical Physics 2

Module PH2002

This module handbook serves to describe contents, learning outcome, methods and examination type as well as linking to current dates for courses and module examination in the respective sections.

Module version of SS 2018

There are historic module descriptions of this module. A module description is valid until replaced by a newer one.

Whether the module’s courses are offered during a specific semester is listed in the section Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature below.

available module versions
WS 2022/3SS 2022WS 2021/2WS 2020/1SS 2020SS 2019SS 2018SS 2017SS 2011

Basic Information

PH2002 is a semester module in German or English language at Master’s level which is offered in summer semester.

This Module is included in the following catalogues within the study programs in physics.

  • Specific catalogue of special courses for Biophysics
  • Specific catalogue of special courses for Applied and Engineering Physics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for condensed matter physics
  • Complementary catalogue of special courses for nuclear, particle, and astrophysics
  • Mandatory Modules in M.Sc. Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics

If not stated otherwise for export to a non-physics program the student workload is given in the following table.

Total workloadContact hoursCredits (ECTS)
150 h 30 h 5 CP

Responsible coordinator of the module PH2002 in the version of SS 2018 was Franz Pfeiffer.

Content, Learning Outcome and Preconditions


This course is the second part of a lecture series, which deals with the physical principles of biomedical applications (part 1: PH2001).

This course teaches the physical basics of biomedical applications in clinics and research. These applications include radiation therapy, laser applications and microscopy. Specifically, the following main topics are covered in these applications: Radiobiology, accelerator sources for radiation therapy, radiation planning, proton therapy, laser applications, light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy.

Learning Outcome

After successful participation in this module the student is able to

  1. describe the physical principles of radiotherapy techniques.
  2. name laser applications in medicine and understand the underlying laser tissue interactions.
  3. explain various methods used in microscopy and compare their advantages and disadvantages.


The course continues the first part of the series "Biomedical Physics 1", but can also be visited without prior knowledge.

Courses, Learning and Teaching Methods and Literature

Courses and Schedule

Learning and Teaching Methods

The module consists of a lecture in which the theoretical basics and their experimental implementation will be explained and made understandable by descriptive examples from clinical applications. Multimedia materials will be used to explain the different techniques. Great importance is attached to stimulating interactive discussion with the students and among the students about the current topics. The lecture notes contain hyperlinks to the original papers, which are intended to promote the entry into independent literature research. The students are instructed to deepen the topics explained in the lecture independently by such research.


  • PowerPoint presentation with integrated animation and instructional videos
  • Interactive discussions with blackboard
  • Printed HandOuts and PDFs with hyperlinks
  • Excursion


  • H. Zabel, Medical Physics 1 & 2, De Gruyter

  • Oppelt, Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics, Siemens & Publicis Corporate Publishing Erlangen

  • W. Schlegel und J. Bille, Medizinische Physik, Bd. 2, Springer Verlag

  • J. Als-Nielsen und D. MacMorrow, Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics, John Wiley & Sons

  • W. Kalender, Computertomographie. Grundlagen, Gerätetechnologie, Bildqualität, Anwendungen, Publicis Corporate Publishing, Erlangen

Module Exam

Description of exams and course work

There will be an oral exam of 25 minutes duration. Therein the achievement of the competencies given in section learning outcome is tested exemplarily at least to the given cognition level using comprehension questions, discussions based on sketches and simple formulas.

For example an assignment in the exam might be:

  • How is a linear accelerator for radiation therapy constructed and how does it work?
  • How are proton beams generated for radiation therapy?
  • How and why do the depth dose curves for irradiation with photons and ions differ?
  • Explain the motivation for dose fractionation using cell survival curves.
  • How does a light microscope / phase contrast microscope / laser scanning confocal microscope / STED microscope work?

Exam Repetition

The exam may be repeated at the end of the semester.

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